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Agriculture in Canada

History

See also: History of Agriculture and Classification of indigenous peoples of the Americas

In the 17th century Samuel de Champlain and Gabriel Sagard recorded that the Iroquois and Huron cultivated the soil for maize or “Indian corn”. Maize (Zea mays), potatoes (Solanum tuberosum), beans (phaseolus), squash (Cucurbita) and the sunflower (Helianthus annus) were grown throughout agricultural lands in North America by the 16th century. As early as 2300 BC evidence of squash was introduced to the northeastern woodlands region. Archaeological findings from 500 AD have shown corn cultivation in southern Ontario.

Eastern Canada was settled well before the West. Immigration and trading posts came later to Rupert’s Land and the Northwest Territories. The early immigrants combined European agricultural and domestication procedures with the indigenous knowledge of the land and animals of the area.

As early as 1605, the French Acadians built dikes in the Maritimes for wheat, flax, vegetables, pasturage and marshland farming. Dairy production is the main contribution of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island, along with livestock and mixed farming ventures. A small percentage of land is put into use in fruit farming as well along Nova Scotia’s northwest coastal areas. The American Revolution, 1775-1783, and its attendant food decline resulted in 3100 hectares cleared in Newfoundland. In the early 19th century Irish immigrants began arriving who cultivated the land in Newfoundland. A very small percentage of the land is suitable in Newfoundland and Labrador for horticultural or crop production because there is a lot of forested and tundra geography. The province has some dairy production and farming concerns. Following World War II, farm training was available at the Government Demonstration Farm. Bonuses were paid for such things as the purchase of pure-bred sires, land clearing, and agriculture exhibition assistance to name a few. The industry of fish processing for food is the largest agricultural contribution from Newfoundland. Newfoundland fisheries, supply cod for the most part, followed closely by herring, haddock, lobster, rose fish, seals, and whales. The fishing industry depends very heavily upon exports and world conditions.

Agriculture in the West started with Peter Pond gardening plots at Lake Athabasca in 1778. Although large-scale agriculture was still many years off, Hudson’s Bay Company traders, gold rush miners, and missionaries cultivated crops, gardens and raised livestock. The Northwest Territories, Yukon, and Nunavut are covered with the Canadian Shield, and rocky outcrops, sub Arctic forest soils, and stony phases make up most of the geography. It is an area of comparatively smaller population and not commercially exploited for the most part. Whaling, prawns, and trapping food processing contribute to agricultural food production here.

In New France hops, hemp and livestock were introduced in 1663. The seigneurial system of farming was adopted in Quebec. Quebec’s agricultural sector relies heavily on its fruit and vegetable production. In 1890, a competition began to encourage farmers to improve their farms to achieve the Agricultural Merit Order. County farm improvement contests were begun about 1930 involving over 5,000 farms and their evolution over five years. They have some interests in livestock and mixed farming and diary as well. St. Hyacinthe operated an artificial insemination station from 1951 for breeders clubs.

Plowing via horse and hand held plow.

The British enforced Corn (Cereal grains) laws, 1794-1846, protected the British agricultural sector from imports of British North American wheat. The Reciprocity Treaty, June 6, 1854, developed a trade agreement between Canada and the United States which affected trade of wheat grown in Ontario. Northern Ontario is mainly tundra and forested area, whereas southern Ontario has lands suitable for livestock and general farming as well as geography suitable for pasture and dairying industries. Fruit farming and tobacco farms can also be found in southern Ontario. Ontario is the largest producer of mixed grains, soybeans and shelled corn in the country.

Ontario farm

Lord Selkirk, founder of the Red River Colony, harvested the first wheat crop in the western prairies in 1814. Red Fife wheat was introduced in 1868. Swine were brought to the Red River colony as early as 1819. The frontier land of southwest Alberta and southeast Saskatchewan were opened to ranching in the 19th century. Manitoba has a combination of mixed grain, livestock, and mixed farming industries in its southernmost areas. Cattle ranching around Lake Manitoba is also quite successful. Northern Manitoba consists of extensive lakes and forested geographical areas. The Dominion Land Act of 1872 offered agricultural pioneers an opportunity to “prove up” a quarter section of land (160 acres/65 hectares]) in western Canada for a .00 filing fee and three years of improvements combined with residence on the land. Saskatchewan still has cattle ranching along its southwestern corner; grain farming and crops such as wheat, oats, flax, alfalfa, and rapeseed (especially canola) dominate the parkland area. Mixed grain farming, dairy farms, mixed livestock and grazing lands dot the central lowlands region of this prairie province.

Alberta is renowned still for its stampedes, and cattle ranching is a main industry. The agricultural industry is supplemented by livestock and mixed farming and wheat crops. Alberta is the second largest producer of wheat in Canada. Grain and dairying also play a role in the livelihoods of Alberta farmers.

Grain Elevators

The open parkland area extends across the three prairie provinces: Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta. Canada’s production of wheat, oats, flaxseed, and barley come mainly from this area. Meat processing is the largest industry here, followed by dairy production, breweries, and the subsidiary industry of agricultural implements.

British Columbia is covered in highlands; its eastern boundary is the Rocky Mountains. Livestock, cattle ranches, fruit farming and dairying dot the province. Agriculture and fisheries are a small contribution industry over shadowed by construction and forestry.

Agricultural production in British Columbia supplied the gold rush industry, mining and logging industries. Agricultural producers relied on these local markets, following the economic boom and bust of each enterprise respectively. The British Columbia Fruit-Growers’ Association was established in 1889 to foster an export market of this commodity. The Canada Agriculture Museum preserves Canadian agricultural history.
Canada Agriculture Museum

Agricultural Museums

Canada Agriculture Museum

Manitoba Agricultural Museum

Ross Farm Museum

Central Experimental Farm

Agriculture in Canada

Ontario Agricultural Museum

Major agricultural products

See also: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Agriculture in Canada comprises five main agricultural production sectors of commodity production resulting in farm cash receipts from both domestic and foreign markets.

Five Largest Agricultural Production Sectors.

Sector

per cent cash receipt

Primary market

grains and oilseeds

(wheat, durum, oats, barley, rye, flax seed, canola, soybeans,rice,and corn)

34%

domestic and export

red meats – livestock

(beef cattle, hogs, veal, and lamb)

27%

domestic and export

dairy

12%

domestic

horticulture

9%

domestic

poultry and eggs

8%

domestic

Various factors affect the socio-economic characteristics of Canadian agriculture.

Alberta modern cement grain elevator

Agricultural analytical factors

Quantity and type of farms

Biogeography: crop and land use areas; land management practices

Quantity of livestock and poultry

Agricultural engineering: Farm machinery and equipment

Farm capital

Farm operating expenses and receipts

Farm-related injuries

Crops

See also: Canadian Grain Commission and Canadian Wheat Board

Wheat head close up view

In 2008, Saskatchewan produced over half of the wheat in the Dominion of Canada, threshing in excess of over 9000 bushels (577000  metric tons) of wheat. North America has led other international continents as the main producer of wheat in total world production. Rapeseed, alfalfa, barley, canola, flax, rye, and oats are other popularly grown grain crops.

Wheat is a staple crop from Canada. To help homesteaders attain an abundance harvest in a foreshortened growing season, varieties of wheat were developed at the beginning of the twentieth century. Red Fife was the first strain; it was a wheat which could be seeded in the fall and sprout in the early spring. Red Fife ripened nearly two weeks sooner and was a harder wheat than other spring wheats. Dr. C. Saunders, experimented further with Red Fife, and developed Marquis Wheat, which was resistant to rust and came to maturity within 100 days. Some other types of wheat grown are durum, spelt, and winter wheat. In recent years Canadian farmers have also began to grow rice due to the increase in the Asian population in Canada.

The Prairie Farm Recreational Administration was established in 2008 to provide Federal financial assistance in regards to the global economical crisis. The Prairie Farm Recreational Administration provides farmers with land and water resources such as irrigation, soil drifting conservation and small farm water development. The Farm credit program has established the Canadian Farm Loan Act to provide stock bonds and farm improvement loans.
Horticulture

Vegetable Displays

Horticulture which includes garden crops, and fruits became easier to grow with the development of plant hardiness zones. Apples, pears, plums and prunes, peaches, apricots, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, loganberries and fruit orchards are numerous and reach commercial size in the Annapolis Valley of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, Niagara Peninsula and Norfolk County of Ontario and Okanagan Valley of British Columbia.

Hazelnuts are harvested in Eastern Canada and British Columbia. Maple syrup and maple sugar, maple butter, and maple taffy are products of Quebec along the St. Lawrence River. The main market for Canadian maple syrup and sugar is the United States Potatoes are an abundant harvest of the Maritime provinces. Tobacco is an agricultural commodity from the Ontario tobacco belt, in particular Norfolk County, adjacent to Lake Erie and Quebec. Sugar beets and beet root sugar are harvested in Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, and Alberta.

Viticulture

Viticulture refers to the growing of grapes. Grapes require a mild winter season, which can be found in some Maritime locations, southern British Columbia, and locations on the Niagara Peninsula.

Livestock

Prize Bull

115,000 cattle roamed the southern prairies by 1900. Livestock can include the raising of cows, also commonly called cattle. Recently domestication of the buffalo and elk has initiated a new food industry. Sheep have been raised for both wool and meat. Bovine or pig barns have been a part of livestock culture. Scientists have been making forward steps in swine research giving rise to intensive pig farming. The domestication of various farm animals meant that corresponding industries such as feedlots, animal husbandry and meat processing have also been studied, and developed.

Dairy, poultry and eggs

See also: National Farm Products Council

Chickens pecking at feed

Fowl, poultry, eggs, chickens, geese, ducks and turkeys are part of a supply-managed system, ensuring production matches demand.

Dairy producing is also termed dairy farming. Butter production in Canada was on average 330,000,000 pounds (150,000 t) in the 1940s; and cheese production between 95,000,000 pounds and 208,000,000 pounds (43,000 t to 94,000 t) in that same time. The United Kingdom received 50,000,000 pounds (23,000 t) in 1949.

The Canadian Dairy Commission Act was passed in 1966 by the Canadian federal Government

to provide efficient producers of milk and cream with the opportunity of obtaining a fair return for their labour and investment and to provide consumers with a continuous and adequate supply of dairy products of high quality.

Canadian Dairy Commission

. In the 1970s the supply management system came into effect to regulate supply of milk, poultry and egg to meet consumer demand. The collective marketing ensures that imports are limited in areas where product can be supplied domestically. The federal government imposed pricing policies to safeguard the producer’s livelihood.

Other

In recent years farmers are producing alternative crops which are economically viable, and amongst these are organic farm crops. Hemp and wool from sheep are the main areas of fiber production of Canada. Wool production was on average 16,022,000 pounds (7,267 t) in the 1930s and 9,835,000 pounds] (4,461 t) in 1949. Fibre flax from flaxseed has been exported to the United Kingdom. Crop growers may supplement their income with beeswax and honey and learn beekeeping which is overseen by the apiary branch. Enterprising land owners have had success growing as well as packaging and marketing the sunflower seed. Crops are not only for human consumption but also for animal consumption, which opens a new market such as canary seed. Cuniculture, or rabbit farming are a new grocery alternative to the red meat burger. Cannabis is an important crop in some areas, making up 5% of British Columbia’s GDP. According to BC Business Magazine, the crop is worth .5 billion to the province annually, and gives employment to 250,000 people . Qubec produces an even bigger crop.

Canadian agricultural government departments

The Department of Agriculture set out in the British North America Act (B.N.A.) of 1867 states each province may have jurisdiction over agricultural concerns, as well as the Dominion Government may also make law in regards to agriculture. Newfoundland agricultural affairs were dealt with by the Agricultural Division of the Department of Natural Resources at Confederation.

The B.N.A. Act states that the federal Government has sole authority in coastal and inland fishery matters. Provinces have rts over non-tidal waters and fishing practices there only.

Canadian agricultural government departments

Department

Function

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada

Responsible for policies governing agriculture production, farming income, research and development, inspection, and the regulation of animals and plants. Headed by the Minister of Agriculture (Canada).

Canadian Dairy Commission

Responsible for providing dairy producers a fair return for labour and investment and provide consumers with high quality dairy products.

Canadian Food Inspection Agency

CFIA consolidates the delivery of all federal food, animal and plant health inspection programs.

Canadian Grain Commission

Responsible for the grain industry. Headed by the Minister of Agriculture and Agri-food

Canadian Wheat Board

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

Responsibility for the conservation and sustainable use of Canada’s fisheries resources.

National Farm Products Council

Responsible for promoting efficient and competitive agriculture in Canada and oversees the Canadian Egg Marketing Agency, Canadian Turkey Marketing Agency, Chicken Farmers of Canada and Canada Hatching Egg Producers.

Agricultural economy

See also: Crow Rate and Western Economic Diversification Canada

Canadian farms, fisheries and ranches produce a wide variety of crops, livestock, food, feed, fiber, fuel and other goods by the systematic raising of plants and animals which are dependent upon the geography of the province. In 2001 farms numbered only 246,923 at a size of 676 acres (2.74 km) as the production of food and fiber for human or livestock sustenance has evolved into intensive and industrial practices. As of 2002, wheat constituted the largest crop area at 12.6%. Canadian farmers received a record .3 billion in 2001 from livestock, crop sales and program payments. In 2001, the accrued net income of farm operators from farm production amounted to 1,633 million dollars, which amounts to 0.147% of Canada’s gross domestic product at market prices which is 1,108,200 million dollars. Fisheries are also playing an important role while forestry plays a secondary role. Canada’s evolution has abandoned subsistence techniques and now sees a mere 3% of Canada’s population employed as a mechanized industrial farmer who are able feed the rest of the nation’s population of 30,689.0 thousand people (2001) as well as export to foreign markets.. (Canada’s estimated population was 32,777,300 on January 1, 2007).

Trade

The marketing and economic movement of Canada’s various agriculture commodities has been a challenge. Domestic trade encompasses providing goods within Canada provincially and inter-provincial. Support agencies and services such as storage, railways, warehouses, stores, banking institutions all effect domestic trade. Trade of wheat from the ‘Bread basket of the World’ or Canada’s prairies are monitored by the Canadian Wheat Board. Canada’s depression of 1882-1897 brought a low of 64 cents per bushel (/t) as of 1893. This era during Laurier’s administration saw thousands of homesteads cancelled. Wheat prices soared during World War I. In 1928, Canada exported high quantities of wheat, flour, and goods. The depression took its toll on Canada as exports sunk to approximately 40% of their 1928 amount. European markets stopped needing to import Canadian wheat as they started growing their own varieties, and then World War II events put a blockade on trade to European markets. Canada became more of an industrial entity during the time of this industrial revolution, and less of an agricultural nation. Following World War II the United Kingdom entered into contract for a large amount of agricultural commodities such as bacon, cheese, wheat, oats and barley. After the United Kingdom, the United States is Canada’s largest external trade partner. Between 1943 and 1953, the average export of Canadian wheat was 347,200,000 bushels (9,449,000 t). The three year International Wheat Agreement of 1955, included exports of wheat or flour to 28 of 44 importing countries including Germany, Japan, Belgium, UK, and the Netherlands.

Agribusiness

Agribusiness are activities of food and fibre production and processing which are not part of the farm operation. This would include the production of farm equipment and fertilizers to aid farm production. Agribusiness also includes the firms that purchase the raw goods from the farm for further processing. The meat packing industry, flour mill, and canning industry would be included in the agribusiness sector processing farm products.
Industry categories

According to Agriculture and Food Canada, these are the classifications of Canadian Agriculture Industries.

Canadian Agriculture Industries

Industry

Mainstay

Brewery industry

Comprises two large national beer producing companies: Labatt Breweries of Canada and Molson Canada Breweries

Buckwheat industry

Buckwheat flour is used for pancake mixes and pasta. Buckwheat is exported mainly to Japan. Majority of this specialty crop grown in Manitoba
Canary seed industry

In 2005, Canada produced 77% of the world canary seed production. Saskatchewan soils were conducive to bird seed production.

Confectionery and chewing gum industry

Sugar and cocoa are imported for this industry which has foreign owned firms operating in Canada. Various candies amounting to .48 billion were shipped in 1997.
Dairy industry

In the Canadian agri-food economy the dairy industry is the third largest.

Dairy genetics industry

The Canadian Record of Performance R.O.P. program discovers dairy cattle of high producing milk capacities. Cattle qualities are monitored by the Canadian Dairy Herd Improvement milk producing agency.(Canadian DHI).

Distillery industry

Canadian whisky made from rye and corn is the main aspect of this Canadian industry. The distillery industry also includes production of whisky, rum, vodka, gin, liqueurs, spirit coolers and basic ethyl alcohol.

Egg industry

Evolved into an automated industry producing table eggs, enzymes, breaker eggs, processed foods, and supporting pullet producers, egg laying chicken (layers) producers and graders.

Fish and seafood industry

This industry produces CDN billion a year. The world’s fourth-largest exporter of fish is Canada, from the Atlantic fishery, Pacific fishery and aquaculture sector.
Forage industry

This industry comprises feed for livestock, cattle, sheep and horses. Hay is the main forage crop, supplemented by alfalfa, cereals, peas and corn. Besides domestic markets, exports from Canada arrive at Pacific Rim Countries.

Fruit industry

Tree fruit grower crops consist of apples, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, nectarines, and sweet cherry, followed by wine grape areas. The industry supports fresh, canned, frozen and preserved fruits as well as food production. Tree fruit grower crops consist of apples, pears, peaches, plums, apricots, nectarines, and sweet cherry, followed by wine grape areas. The industry supports fresh, canned, frozen and preserved fruits as well as food production.

Grains and oilseeds industry

Wheat, barley and oats are Canada’s grain exports. Canola, soybean and flaxseed are the main oilseed exports.

Grain-based products industry

Grain and oilseed production supports flour milling, malt manufacturing, starch, vegetable fat and oil manufacturing as well as breakfast cereal manufacturing

Hemp industry

Spin off industries from Hemp production include aromatherapy, commercial oil paints, cosmetics, edible oil, garments and accessories, hemp meal and flour, snack foods, shampoo and conditioners, and moisturizers.

Honey industry

Beeswax produces cosmetics, ointments, candles and household waxes. A diet supplement is made from bee pollen. Propolis and royal jelly is used in cosmetics, creams, lotions, tonics and lip balms. Honey is a sweetener for domestic use or commercial food production.
Industrial agriculture (animals)

Factory farming, Intensive pig farming, Integrated Multi-trophic Aquaculture, and shrimp farming are various forms of industrial agriculture which aims at mass production

Industrial agriculture

Includes innovation in agricultural machinery and farming methods, genetic technology, techniques for achieving economies of scale in production, the creation of new markets for consumption, the application of patent protection to genetic information, and global trade

Maple syrup industry

Maple syrup can be used to make maple sugar, maple butter, maple taffy as well as a sweetener.
Mustard seed industry

Yellow mustard is the highest export, closely followed by brown and oriental mustards. 2007 saw an increase in mustard seed prices.

Organic industry

Operational certification and standards are challenges for the growing organic farming industry. Organic farming with biodynamics and without synthetic chemicals provides the consumer a holistic plant and animal food choice.
Potato industry

Potato Innovation Network (PIN) 2020 was initiated in 2006 to support development of new markets, and new uses for potatoes in market diversification.

Poultry industry

Avian Influenza (“Bird Flu”) is the latest concern in the poultry industry however disease precautions are in place if this strain arrives in Canada.
Processed fruit and vegetable industry

Processing of fruits and vegetables includes consumer products of canned, cider, frozen, jams, jellies and marmalades, pickles, sauces, soups, vegetable and fruit juices and vinegar.

Pulse industry

Beans, chickpeas, faba beans, and lentils comprise the pulse industry. Peas soup, and baked beans are large production processes from pulse growth. The world’s largest pulse exporter is Canada.

Red meat industry

This is Canada’s fourth major manufacturing industry. Cattle, calves, hogs, sheep, lambs, venison, bison are all domesticated for red meat export and domestic consumption.
Seed industry

Seed growers, field inspectors, registered seed establishments, seed trial plots, and seed retailers are the mainstays of seed production.

Snack food industry

Cereal grains, cornmeal, nuts, oils , potatoes, and seeds are the major ingredients of snack foods such as potato chips, mixed nuts, peanut butter, pork rinds, and seed snacks.

Sunflower seed industry

About 80 per cent sunflowers grown in Canada are sold as roasted snack sunflower seeds or without the shell for baking. The main consumer is domestic. Birdfeed and sunflower vegetable oils are smaller markets which are being developed.

Vegetable industry

The edible portion of a plant is a vegetable. Vegetables can be marketed fresh or as part of the processed fruit and vegetable industry. The greenhouse vegetable industry supports the field vegetable farmer.

Wine industry

Canadian vintners producing wines with unique aromas, aging characteristics and flavors bring in international awards. The grape hybrid from the native Canadian species bred with wine producing grapes results in a grape for a shorter, cooler growing season, and a quality not found elsewhere.

Agricultural Science

Agricultural science began developing new styles of farming and strains of wheat and crops so that farming could become a successful venture. Farming methods were developed at places such as Indian Head Experimental Farm, Rosthern Experimental Station, and Bell Farm. The Better Farming Train traveled around rural areas educating pioneer farmers. The 1901 census showed 511,100 farms and the number of farms peaked in 1941 at a record 732,800 farms.. The industrial revolution modernized the farming industry as mechanized vehicles replaced the oxen ploughed land or the horse drawn cart. Farms became much larger, and mechanized evolving towards industrial agriculture.

Production

See also: List of countries by GDP sector composition

Farming activities were very labour intensive before the industrial revolution and the advent of tractors, combines, balers, etc. In the late 1800s to mid 1900s, a great percentage of the Canadian labour force was engaged in high labour, smaller farming practices. After mechanization, scientific advancement, improved marketing practices farms became more efficient, larger and less labour intensive. The labour population was freed up and went to industry, government, transportation, trade and finance. Agriculture, stock raising and horticulture employed one-fourth of the Canadian population according to the 1951 census as well as providing products for exports and Canadian manufacturing concerns.

Farm equipment

The Oliver plow was in use by 1896 which could cut through the prairie sod. Binders which could cut and tie grain for the harvest season and grain elevators for storage were introduced in the late 1800s as well. Plows, tractors, spreaders, combines to name a few are some mechanized implements for the grain crop or horticultural farmer which are labour saving devices. Many Canadian museums such as Reynolds-Alberta Museum will showcase the evolution and variety of farm machinery.

Harvest of Wheat via combine

Challenges

The depression and drought of the Dirty Thirties was devastating. This drought resulted in a mass exodus of population from the prairies, as well as new agricultural practices such as soil conservation, and crop rotation.

Soil conservation practices such as crop rotation, cover crops, and windbreaks to name a few were massively developed and set in forth upon recovering from the drought experiences of the dirty thirties. Literally layers and layers of topsoil would be blowing away during this time. Bow River Irrigation Project, Red Deer River Project and the St. Mary Irrigation project of Alberta, were a few of the major projects undertaken by the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation Act (P.F.R.A.) resulting in reservoirs, and distribution systems. A current project is Liming (soil) soil liming at the Land Resource Research Institute. Wheat diseases such as wheat bunt and stinking smut can be successfully treated with a fungicide. Disease of plants and animals can break an agricultural producer. Tuberculosis in animals was an early threat, and cattle needed to be tested, and areas accredited in 1956. The newer disease such as chronic wasting disease or transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) affects both elk and deer. Elk and deer raising is a pioneer field of domestication, has had a setback with this disease. Mad cow disease in cattle and scrapie of sheep are monitored by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. The poultry sector was plagued by Pullorum disease, and by controlling the flock via poultry husbandry, this disease has been brought under control.

Plants whose traits can be modified to survive a disease or insect have made inroads into Canadian agricultural practices. Cereal rusts which can destroy the majority of areas seeded to wheat, was controlled in 1938 by breeding strains which were rust-resistant. This strain was successful until around 1950, when again a new variety of rust broke out, and again a new species of wheat called Selkirk was developed which was rust resistant. Biotechnology is the center of new research and regulations affecting agriculture this century.

Developmental and educational institutions

To increase the viability of agriculture as an economic lifestyle several improvements have been made by various nationwide educational facilities. Inroads and innovations have been made in the diverse fields of agricultural science, agricultural engineering, agricultural soil science, Sustainable agriculture, Agricultural productivity, agronomy, biodiversity, bioengineering, irrigation and swine research for example.

Canadian developmental and educational institutions

Institution

Research Programme

Animal Embryo Biotechnology Laboratory

AEBL researches artificial insemination, embryo biotechnology to improve genetic breeding requirements.

Central Experimental Farm

Scientific research for improvement in agricultural methods and crops. Features the Canada Agriculture Museum, Dominion Arboretum, and Ornamental Gardens.

Cool Climate Oenology and Viticulture Institute

CCOVI provides research to enable the growing grapes and production of wine in cooler climates.

Devonian Botanical Garden

Emphasis on alpine and cold-hardy plants along with wetland ecology, biology of microfungi, horticulture, and phenology research.

Fisheries Centre

Research of aquatic ecosystems and collaboration with Maritime communities, government, and NGOs

List of botanical gardens in Canada

Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Centre

NAFC is a part of the Canadian research facility of the Science, Oceans and Environment (SOE) branch and Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) provides marine and aquatic research and conservation.

Nova Scotia Agricultural College

Field and animal husbandry studies.

Ontario Horticultural Association

Regional horticultural associations promote education about horticulture.

University of Saskatchewan Agriculture & Bioresources College

Agricultural and bioresource engineering , economics, agronomy, animal Science, environmental science, food and applied microbiological sciences, large animal clinical sciences , plant sciences, and soil science

Vaccine and Infectious Disease Organization

The VIDO facility develops DNA-enhanced immunization vaccines for both humans and animals.

See also

Canadian Agricultural Safety Association

Pesticides in Canada

References

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^ “Saskatchewan Agricultural Hall of Fame”. zu.com communications inc.. 2006. http://www.sahf.ca/. Retrieved 2007-04-10. 

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^ Hawkes, John (June 15, 2005). "Saskatchewan Gen Web Project - SASKATCHEWAN AND ITS PEOPLE by JOHN HAWKES". Bell Farm. Julia Adamson Rootsweb.com. http://www.rootsweb.com/~cansk/SaskatchewanAndItsPeople/Volume2/index.html. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 

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Books

Pleva, E.G. and Inch, Spencer, ed (1977). Canadian Oxford School Atlas. The Bryant Press Limited. ISBN 0-19-540240-5. 

Hardy, W.G., ed (1959). From Sea unto Sea. Doubleday & Company, Inc.. 

Hutchison, Bruce, ed (1945). The Unknown Country. Longmans, Green & Co., Toronto. 

Daly, Ronald C., ed (1982). The Macmillan School Atlas. Gage Educational Publishing Company A Division of Canada Publishing Corporation. ISBN 0-7715-8268-4. 

Cloutier, Edmond, ed (1951). The Canada Year Book 1951 The Official Statistical Annual of the Resources, History, Institutions, and Social and Economic Conditions of Canada. King’s Printer and Controller of Stationery. ISBN 0-7715-8268-4. 

Cloutier, Edmond, ed (1956). Canada 1956 The Official Handbook of Present Conditions and Recent Progress. Queen’s Printer and Controller of Stationery, Ottawa.. 

Kerr, D.G.G., ed (1959). A Historical Atlas of Canada. Thomas Nelson and Sons (Canada) Ltd.. 

Dorland, Arthur G., ed (1949). Our Canada. The Copp Clark Publishing Co, Limited. 

External links

Find more about Agriculture in Canada on Wikipedia’s sister projects:

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Images and media from Commons

News stories from Wikinews

Learning resources from Wikiversity

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada / Agriculture et Agroalimentaire

Canada Agriculture Museum

Soil to Sky: Careers in Canadian Agriculture in Food

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